Name: 
 

Programming Study Guide SkillsUSA 2015-2016



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

No matter which programming language a computer programmer uses, the language has rules governing its word usage and punctuation.
 

 2. 

A program that is free of syntax errors will produce the correct results.
 

 3. 

Variable names may not begin with a digit, although usually they may contain digits.
 

 4. 

In arithmetic statements, the rules of precedence can be overridden using parentheses.
 

 5. 

When you declare variables, you have the option of assigning initial values to them.
 

 6. 

It is more common for uninitialized variables to have an a valid default value assigned to them, than it is for them to contain an unknown, or garbage value.
 

 7. 

Every decision you make in a computer program involves evaluating a Boolean expression.
 

 8. 

String value: “BLACK HORSE” is equal to “Black Horse”.
 

 9. 

When you use an AND operator to join multiple Boolean expressions, all the individual expressions must be true for the joint expression to be true.
 

 10. 

When you use the OR operator, both of the listed conditions must be met for the resulting
action to take place.
 

 11. 

In every programming language, addition has precedence over multiplication in an arithmetic statement.
 

 12. 

While making decisions is what makes computers seem intelligent, it’s looping that makes computer programming both efficient and worthwhile.
 

 13. 

Just as with a selection, the Boolean comparison that controls a while loop must compare same-type values.
 

 14. 

The number of times a loop executes should always depend on a constant.
 

 15. 

It is always a mistake to fail to initialize a loop’s control variable.
 

 16. 

All programming languages assign 0 to a variable you fail to initialize explicitly.
 

 17. 

Each array element occupies an area in memory next to the others.
 

 18. 

You cannot initialize array elements when you declare the array.
 

 19. 

The values stored in arrays should never be constants.
 

 20. 

As with a while loop, when you use a for loop, you must be careful to stay within array bounds.
 

 21. 

When you program in object-oriented languages, you frequently create classes from which objects will be instantiated.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

____ are the two major components of any computer system.
a.
Input and output
c.
Keyboards and mice
b.
Monitors and printers
d.
Hardware and software
 

 2. 

____ are instruction sets written by programmers.
a.
Tests
c.
Programs
b.
Outputs
d.
Inputs
 

 3. 

Word-processing programs, spreadsheets, payroll and inventory programs, and even games are considered to be ____.
a.
application software
c.
low-level programming languages
b.
system software
d.
high-level programming languages
 

 4. 

The ____ of a language are the rules that govern word usage and punctuation.
a.
semantics
c.
syntax
b.
structure
d.
logic
 

 5. 

The language translation software that converts a programmer’s statements to binary form is called a ____.
a.
processor
c.
translator
b.
compiler
d.
central processing unit
 

 6. 

A(n) ____ is the sequence of steps necessary to solve any problem.
a.
algorithm
c.
rhythm
b.
pseudocode list
d.
problem statement
 

 7. 

____ a program is when a programmer can execute the program with some sample data to see whether the results are logically correct.
a.
Planning
c.
Maintaining
b.
Coding
d.
Testing
 

 8. 

____ is an English-like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
a.
Algorithm
c.
Code
b.
Pseudocode
d.
Syntax
 

 9. 

A(n) ____ is a pictorial representation of logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
a.
flowchart
c.
source program
b.
algorithm
d.
diagram
 

 10. 

____ are named memory locations, whose contents can vary over time.
a.
Named constants
c.
Literals
b.
Constants
d.
Variables
 

 11. 

In many modern programming languages, the equal sign is the _______.
a.
sentinel value
c.
magic number
b.
assignment operator
d.
variable
 

 12. 

The ____ dictate the order in which operations in the same statement are carried out.
a.
rules of execution
c.
rules of operation
b.
rules of order
d.
rules of precedence
 

 13. 

A variable’s ____ describes the kind of values the variable can hold, how much memory the value occupies, and the types of operations that can be performed with the data stored there.
a.
size
c.
data type
b.
name
d.
value
 

 14. 

A ____ variable can have mathematical operations performed on it.
a.
character
c.
pointer
b.
numeric
d.
string
 

 15. 

A ____ variable can hold letters of the alphabet and other special characters such as punctuation marks.
a.
character
c.
string
b.
numeric
d.
alphabetic
 

 16. 

You must always ____ a variable before you can use it for the first time in a program.
a.
declare
c.
instantiate
b.
reference
d.
announce
 

 17. 

A(n) ____ loop is a repeating flow of logic that never ends.
a.
definite
c.
circling
b.
finite
d.
infinite
 

 18. 

An important feature of modern programming is the ability to build programs from smaller segments. This is known as ____.
a.
monolithic
c.
independence
b.
structured
d.
modularity
 

 19. 

____ programming focuses on breaking down programming processes into manageable subtasks.
a.
Functional
c.
Object-oriented
b.
Procedural
d.
Structured
 

 20. 

____ programming focuses on objects, or “things,” and describes their attributes and behaviors.
a.
Functional
c.
Object-oriented
b.
Procedural
d.
Structured
 

 21. 

The popular name for logically snarled program statements is ____ code.
a.
noodle
c.
spaghetti
b.
meatloaf
d.
puzzle
 

 22. 

Programs that use ____ code are so difficult to alter that when improvements are required, developers often find it easier to abandon the existing program and start from scratch.
a.
preplanned
c.
structured
b.
spaghetti
d.
rapid
 

 23. 

In a ____ structure, you continue to repeat actions while a condition is true.
a.
sequence
c.
selection
b.
loop
d.
decision
 

 24. 

The action or actions that occur within a loop are known as ____.
a.
loop workings
c.
action body
b.
loop body
d.
inner workings
 

 25. 

Placing a structure within another structure is called ____.
a.
stacking
c.
including
b.
nesting
d.
cascading
 

 26. 

A group of statements that executes as a single unit is a(n) ____.
a.
module
c.
bunch
b.
unit
d.
block
 

 27. 

The selection structure where the logic can flow only to one of the two alternatives, never to both is called a(n) ____ structure.
a.
if-then
c.
loop
b.
if-then-else
d.
while
 

 28. 

A ____ is a displayed statement that advises a user what to do. For example,  "Please enter your name.”
a.
start
c.
prompt
b.
question
d.
query
 

 29. 

A ____ is one that represents only one of two states, true or false.
a.
Boolean expression
c.
trivial expression
b.
short-circuit evaluation
d.
truth table
 

 30. 

There are ____ relational comparison operators supported by all modern programming languages.
a.
three
c.
five
b.
four
d.
six
 

 31. 

True/false evaluation is “natural” from a computer’s standpoint because computer circuitry consists of two-state on-off switches, often represented by ____.
a.
1 or -1
c.
light or dark
b.
1 or 0
d.
plus or minus
 

 32. 

A(n) ____ is a value on either side of an operator.
a.
operator
c.
compound condition
b.
indicator
d.
operand
 

 33. 

The ____ operator evaluates as true when the left operand is less than or equivalent to the right operand.
a.
>=
c.
>
b.
<=
d.
<
 

 34. 

In any Boolean expression, the two values compared can be either variables or ____.
a.
numbers
c.
constants
b.
nulls
d.
trivial expressions
 

 35. 

If X > Y is false, which of the following is always true?
a.
X < Y
c.
X = Y
b.
X <= Y
d.
X >= Y
 

 36. 

Which of the following pseudocode selects all people over 21?
a.
if age >= 20 then
c.
if age Not < 21 then
b.
if age > 20 then
d.
if age > 21 then
 

 37. 

A series of nested if statements is also called a ____ if statement.
a.
connected
c.
cascading
b.
stacked
d.
trailed
 

 38. 

Which of the lettered choices is equivalent to the following decision?
if a > 10 then
      if b > 10 then
        output "OK"
      endif
endif
a.
if a > 10 OR b > 10 then output "OK”
c.
if a > 10 AND b > 10 then output "OK"
b.
if a > 10 AND a > b then output "OK”
d.
if a > b then output "OK"
 

 39. 

____ are diagrams used in mathematics and logic to help describe the truth of an entire expression based on the truth of its parts.
a.
Truth diagrams
c.
Truth tables
b.
Truth matrix
d.
Logic diagrams
 

 40. 

A ____ of values is every value between low and high limits.
a.
list
c.
range
b.
block
d.
group
 

 41. 

Sometimes you want to take action when one or the other of two conditions is true, this type of compound condition is called a(n) ____ decision.
a.
AND
c.
NOR
b.
OR
d.
NOT
 

 42. 

If  X is true, Y is true, and Z is false, which of the following expressions is true?
a.
X AND Y AND Z
c.
X AND Y OR Z
b.
X OR Y AND Z
d.
X > Y AND Z
 

 43. 

Many programming languages allow you to use ____ to correct your logic when using ANDs and ORs and force the OR expression to be evaluated first.
a.
parentheses
c.
underscores
b.
braces
d.
brackets
 

 44. 

When several decisions are based on the value of the same variable, many programming languages offer a shortcut called the ____ structure.
a.
sequence
c.
loop
b.
while
d.
case
 

 45. 

You use the logical ____ operator to reverse the meaning of a Boolean expression.
a.
NOT
c.
OR
b.
AND
d.
XOR
 
 
Case-Based Critical Thinking Questions

Case 1

The YumYum store sells ice cream. Single-scoops cost $2.00, double-scoops cost $2.80, and triple-scoops cost $3.50.
 

 46. 

No matter how many scoops a customer chooses, when a customer also decides that they want the ice cream served in a cone, there is an additonal 50 cent charge. In order to correctly charge for the ice cream served in a cone, you would use a(n) ____.
a.
OR
c.
NOT
b.
AND
d.
> operand
 

 47. 

There is a $10 bonus for ice cream store workers that have more than $100 of sales on their shift and sell more than four triple-scoop servings. What pseudocode will select the workers that will earn a bonus?
a.
if Sales > 100 OR tripleScoop > 4
c.
if Sales > 100 AND tripleScoop < 4
b.
if Sales > 100 OR tripleScoop >=4
d.
if Sales > 100 AND tripleScoop > 4
 

 48. 

There is a $10 bonus for ice cream store workers that have more than $100 of sales on their shift and sell more than four triple-scoop servings. During any one shift, there are many more workers selling more than four triple-scoop servings than workers having more than $100 in sales. When you write a program to determine bonuses, you can make the most efficient decision by first asking if workers had more than ____.
a.
$100 dollars of sales
c.
four double scoop sales
b.
four triple scoop sales
d.
four single scoop sales
 

 49. 

To most efficiently keep track of the sales for each of the three serving sizes, you would use ____.
a.
three completely separate unnested if statements
c.
nested if statements using OR logic
b.
nested if statements using AND logic
d.
four completely separate unnested if statements
 

 50. 

Double-scoop orders account for about 50 percent of the sales; single-scoop orders account for 30 percent and only 20 percent of sales are triple-scoops. When you write a program to determine sales based on scoop size, you can make the most efficient decision by asking first whether the scoop size is ____.
a.
single
c.
triple
b.
double
d.
does not mater
 

 51. 

The following pseudocode is not working properly. The message should display five times. What needs to be changed?
   Declarations
     string message = ”OK”
   while count < 5
      output message
      count = count + 1
   endwhile
a.
while count < 5 should be changed to while count = 5
b.
num count = 1 should be added to the Declarations
c.
num count should be added to the Declarations
d.
num count = 0 should be added to the Declarations
 

 52. 

In the following pseudocode, what will be the value of sum after the code is run?
   Declarations
      num count = 0
      num sum = 0
   while count < 3
             for X = 1 to 2 step 1
         sum = sum + X
      endfor
      count = count + 1

   endwhile
a.
3
c.
9
b.
6
d.
12
 

 53. 

The following pseudocode is not working properly. The message should display five times. This is not working because the programmer made which common loop mistake?
   Declarations
     num count
     string message = ”OK”
   while count < 5
      output message
      count = count + 1
   endwhile
a.
Neglecting to initialize the loop control variable
b.
Neglecting to alter the loop control variable
c.
Using the wrong comparison with the loop control variable
d.
Including statements inside the loop that belong outside the loop
 

 54. 

The following pseudocode is not working properly. The message should display 10 times. This is not working because the programmer made which common loop mistake?
   for count = 1 to 10
      output "Hello"
   endfor
a.
Neglecting to initialize the loop control variable
b.
Neglecting to alter the loop control variable
c.
Using the wrong comparison with the loop control variable
d.
Including statements inside the loop that belong outside the loop
 

 55. 

The following pseudocode is not working properly. The message should display 10 times. What needs to be changed?
   for count = 0 to 10
      output "I love programming!"
   endfor
a.
The for statement should be:
for count = 0 to 9
b.
The for statement should be:
for count = 0 to 9 step 1
c.
The for statement should be:
for count = 0 to 10 step 1
d.
The for statement should be:
for count = 0 to 8 step 1
 

 56. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly. How should the for loop be changed?
start
   Declarations
      num count = 0
      num scores[6] = 0,0,0,0,0,0
      num SIZE = 6
    for count 0 to SIZE step
      input entry
      scores[count] = entry
    endfor
stop
a.
for count 0 to SIZE + 1 step 1
b.
for count 0 to SIZE - 1 step 1
c.
for count 0 to SIZE - 1 step
d.
for count 0 to SIZE - 1 step -1
 

 57. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly. The code should total the array elements. What code needs to be changed?
start
   Declarations
      num count = 0
      num total = 0
      num scores[6] = 2,4,6,8,10,12
    while count < 6
      total = total + scores
      count = count + 1
    endwhile
stop
a.
Change the while to:
while count < 7
b.
move count = count + 1 after the endwhile
c.
Change the total =  to:
total = scores + scores[count]
d.
Change the total = to:
total = total + scores[count]
 

 58. 

You are working with parallel arrays to detemine the grade a student earns in a class. The student earns a grade based on the following:

minimum points to earn an A is 900
minimum points to earn a B is 800
minimum points to earn a C is 700
minimum points to earn a D is 600
below 600 earns an F

The points array is defined as follows: num points[5] = 900,800,700,600,0
How should the grades array be defined?
a.
num grades[5] = A,B,C,D,F
b.
string grades[5] = “A”,”B”,”C”,”D”,”F”
c.
num grades[5] = “A”,”B”,”C”,”D”,”F”
d.
string grades[5] = “F”,”D”,”C”,”B”,”A”
 

 59. 

The following pseudocode checks if an item number is valid:
start
   Declarations
      num sub = 0
      num SIZE = 5
      num VALID_ITEM [5] = 27,53,84,89,95
      string foundIt = "N"
      input item
   while sub < SIZE
      if item = VALID_ITEM[sub] then
         foundIt = "Y"
      endif
     sub = sub +1
   endwhile
   if foundIt = "Y" then
      output “Valid item number”
   else
      output “Invalid item number”
   endif
stop
Which while loop makes this more efficient?
a.
while sub < SIZE AND foundIt = "N"
b.
while sub < SIZE AND foundIt > "N"
c.
while sub < SIZE AND foundIt = "Y"
d.
The while loop is already efficient
 

 60. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly. What kind of error is this?
start
   Declarations
      num count = 0
      num scores[6] = 0,0,0,0,0,0
      num SIZE = 6
    for count 0 to SIZE step 1
      input entry
      scores[count] = entry
    endfor
stop
a.
out of memory
c.
out of bounds
b.
no match was found
d.
bounded
 

 61. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly.  What code needs to be corrected?
This is the call to the method:  displayName()

And this is the method:

displayName(string name)
    output “My name is “ name
return
a.
Change the method call to
displayName(“Sean”)
b.
Change the method call to
displayName(Sean)
c.
Change the return statement to
return output
d.
Change the return statement to
return name
 

 62. 

There is a method with the header: void printData(num x, string y). There is a declared numeric variable: test. Which of the following is a correct method call?
a.
printData(test)
c.
printData(“Good”, test)
b.
printData(test, “Good”)
d.
printData(“Good”, “Best”)
 

 63. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly. The code should multiply price and tax, and display the result. What code needs to be corrected?

computeArea(num width, num length)
     Declarations
        num result
     width * length
     output “The area is “ result
return
a.
Change the return statement to
return result
b.
Change the result initialization to
num result = width * length
c.
Change the return statement to
return output
d.
Change the output line to
output = width * length
 

 64. 

There is a method with the header: void printData(num x, string y).
There is a declared a numeric variable: test.  What does this method return?
a.
a numeric and a string variable
c.
nothing
b.
test
d.
it depends on the parameters
 

 65. 

The following pseudocode is not working correctly. The code should add price and tax. What code needs to be corrected?

num computeSum(num price, num tax)
     Declarations
        num result
     result = price + tax
return
a.
Change the result calculation to
result = tax + price
b.
Change the result calculation to
result = (price + tax)
c.
Change the return statement to
return num
d.
Change the return statement to
return result
 

 66. 

When you use a ____ within a computer program, you can write one set of instructions that operates on multiple, separate sets of data.
a.
counter
c.
loop
b.
variable
d.
sentinel
 

 67. 

A ____ is the structure that repeats actions while some condition continues.
a.
decision
c.
branch
b.
loop
d.
block
 

 68. 

As long as a Boolean expression remains true, a ____ loop’s body executes.
a.
do
c.
while
b.
go
d.
begin
 

 69. 

When you write a loop, you must control the number of repetitions it performs; if you do not, you run the risk of creating a(n) ____ loop.
a.
final
c.
unbreakable
b.
infinite
d.
permanent
 

 70. 

Commonly, you control a loop’s repetitions by using either a counter or a ____ value.
a.
flag
c.
control
b.
keystone
d.
sentinel
 

 71. 

The decision that controls every loop is always based on a ____ expression.
a.
Boolean
c.
conditional
b.
numeric
d.
contrived
 

 72. 

When a loop control variable is numeric, its value is often altered by ____ it, or adding to it.
a.
decrementing
c.
incrementing
b.
indicating
d.
increasing
 

 73. 

Some loops are controlled by reducing, or ____.
a.
decrementing
c.
indicating
b.
incrementing
d.
compensating
 

 74. 

A loop for which the number of iterations is predetermined is called a(n) ____ loop, or counted loop.
a.
infinite
c.
optimal
b.
definite
d.
defined
 

 75. 

A(n) ____ is any numeric variable you use to count the number of times an event has occurred.
a.
accumulator
c.
scratchpad
b.
holder
d.
counter
 

 76. 

Many programmers prefer starting their counted loops with a variable containing a(n) ____ value.
a.
0
c.
arbitrary
b.
1
d.
constant
 

 77. 

Often, the value of a loop control variable is not altered by arithmetic, but instead is altered by ____.
a.
infinite loops
c.
user input
b.
machine input
d.
the loop
 

 78. 

A value such as "Y" or "N" that a user must supply to stop a loop is called a(n) ____ value.
a.
flag
c.
indicator
b.
sentinel
d.
overlook
 

 79. 

The ____ is the location on your computer screen at which you type entries to communicate with the computer’s operating system using text.
a.
command prompt
c.
input prompt
b.
command shell
d.
run prompt
 

 80. 

Many programs are not run at the command prompt in a text environment, but are run using a ____, which allows users to interact with a program in a graphical environment.
a.
UML
c.
GUM
b.
GOOY
d.
GUI
 

 81. 

Program logic gets more complicated when you must use loops within loops, creating ____ loops.
a.
interwoven
c.
nested
b.
stacked
d.
connected
 

 82. 

When one loop is nested within another, the containing loop is the ____ loop.
a.
inner
c.
bounding
b.
controlling
d.
outer
 

 83. 

When one loop is nested within another, the loop that is contained is the ____ loop.
a.
outer
c.
controlling
b.
inner
d.
bounding
 

 84. 

Programmers use the term “____” to describe programs that are well designed and easy to understand and maintain.
a.
simple
c.
elegant
b.
complex
d.
classic
 

 85. 

Every high-level computer programming language contains a ____ statement that you can use to code any loop, including both indefinite and definite loops.
a.
do
c.
for
b.
while
d.
count
 

 86. 

The ____ statement uses a loop control variable and provides you with three actions automatically in one compact statement: initialization, evaluation and incrementation.
a.
do
c.
for
b.
while
d.
count
 

 87. 

A(n) ____ value is a number you use to increase a loop control variable on each pass through a loop.
a.
jump
c.
increment
b.
bump
d.
step
 

 88. 

With a ____ loop, the loop body executes once before the loop-controlling condition is tested.
a.
do-while
c.
do
b.
while
d.
for
 

 89. 

A(n) ____ is a contiguous series of variables in computer memory.
a.
collection
c.
vector
b.
matrix
d.
array
 

 90. 

All the variables in an array are differentiated with special numbers called ____.
a.
scripts
c.
elements
b.
subscripts
d.
pointers
 

 91. 

A(n) ____, also called an index, is a number that indicates the position of a particular item within an array.
a.
indicator
c.
subscript
b.
element
d.
script
 

 92. 

Each separate array variable is one ____ of the array.
a.
element
c.
index
b.
aspect
d.
member
 

 93. 

The number of elements an array will hold is known as the ____ of the array.
a.
bounds
c.
constraints
b.
limits
d.
size
 

 94. 

All array elements have the same ____ name.
a.
group
c.
structure
b.
target
d.
collection
 

 95. 

Each individual element in an array has a unique ____ indicating how far away it is from the first element.
a.
indicator
c.
subscript
b.
element
d.
script
 

 96. 

Any array’s subscripts are always a ____ of integers.
a.
group
c.
list
b.
sequence
d.
range
 

 97. 

Subscripts begin with a value of ____.
a.
-1
c.
1
b.
0
d.
the number of elements in the array
 

 98. 

In most modern programming languages, the highest subscript you should use with an 8-element array is ____ .
a.
6
c.
8
b.
7
d.
9
 

 99. 

When declaring an array, depending on the syntax rules of the programming language you use, you place the subscript within parentheses or ____ following the group name.
a.
asterisks
c.
curly brackets
b.
slashes
d.
square brackets
 

 100. 

Most programming languages use a statement similar to the following to declare a three-element array and assign values to it: ____
a.
{20, 30, 40} = num someVals[3]
b.
num someVals[3] = {someVals}
c.
num someVals[] = 20, 30, 40
d.
num someVals[3] = 20, 30, 40
 

 101. 

What is TRUE about the following array?
     num someVals[5] = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9
a.
someVals[1] has the value of 1
c.
There are 6 elements in this array.
b.
someVals[1] has the value of 3
d.
someVals[3] has the value of 3
 

 102. 

The true benefit of an array lies in your ability to use a(n) ____ as a subscript to the array.
a.
variable
c.
operator
b.
table
d.
field
 

 103. 

A ____ is a variable that you set to indicate whether some event has occurred.
a.
handler
c.
flag
b.
rudder
d.
bug
 

 104. 

Frequently, a flag holds a ____ value.
a.
subscript
c.
string
b.
true or false
d.
junk
 

 105. 

In ____ arrays, each element in one array is associated with the element in the same relative position in the other array.
a.
parallel
c.
grouped
b.
related
d.
combined
 

 106. 

When you use parallel arrays, two or more arrays contain ____ data.
a.
connected
c.
identical
b.
equivalent
d.
related
 

 107. 

A ____ search starts looking in the middle of a sorted list, and then determines whether it should continue higher or lower.
a.
linear
c.
graphic
b.
quick
d.
binary
 

 108. 

An element in an array is 3 bytes long and there are 10 elements in the array. How big is the array?
a.
30 bytes
c.
3 bytes
b.
10 bytes
d.
Not enough information to determine
 

 109. 

The ____ is a particularly convenient tool when working with arrays because you frequently need to process every element of an array from beginning to end.
a.
binary search
c.
for loop
b.
range check
d.
parallel array
 

 110. 

When you have a six element array and use subscript 6, your subscript is said to be out of ____.
a.
bounds
c.
range
b.
scope
d.
array
 

 111. 

To execute a method, you invoke it or ____ it from another program or method.
a.
call
c.
command
b.
translate to
d.
transfer to
 

 112. 

The process of breaking down a large program into modules is called ____.
a.
decomposition
c.
modularization
b.
isolation
d.
compartmentalization
 

 113. 

The feature of modular programs that allows individual modules to be used in a variety of applications is known as ____.
a.
reusability
c.
reliability
b.
readability
d.
consistency
 

 114. 

A method’s ____ contains all the statements in the method.
a.
header
c.
declaration
b.
body
d.
return
 

 115. 

Variables and constants declared within a method are ____ only within that method.
a.
in vision
c.
in scope
b.
in range
d.
in group
 

 116. 

The scope of a variable or constant is ____ to the method or program in which it is declared.
a.
global
c.
public
b.
local
d.
private
 

 117. 

Methods are considered ____, that is, they can more easily be transported to and reused by multiple programs when variables and constants are declared within the methods that use them.
a.
efficient
c.
reliable
b.
moveable
d.
portable
 

 118. 

____ variables and constants are those that are known to the entire program.
a.
Global
c.
Universal
b.
Local
d.
Portable
 

 119. 

When two or more methods in a program require access to the same data, you ___ the data from one method to another.
a.
text
c.
define
b.
manage
d.
pass
 

 120. 

In a program, when you send a value to a method, you send a(n) ____ to the method.
a.
variable
c.
argument
b.
parameter
d.
key
 

 121. 

When a method returns nothing it is known as a(n) ____ method.
a.
empty
c.
blank
b.
void
d.
null
 

 122. 

When you place a value in a(n) ____ statement, the value is sent from the called method back to the calling method.
a.
return
c.
send
b.
expel
d.
value
 

 123. 

All modern programming languages contain many built-in, prewritten ____ to save time and effort.
a.
routines
c.
methods
b.
variable
d.
programs
 

 124. 

In many environments, collections of pre-written methods are called ____.
a.
templates
c.
foundations
b.
libraries
d.
packages
 

 125. 

____ programming is a style of programming that focuses on an application’s data and the methods you need to manipulate that data.
a.
Object-oriented
c.
Object
b.
Functional
d.
Method
 

 126. 

In object-oriented terminology, a(n) ____ is one concrete example of a class.
a.
entity
c.
method
b.
interface
d.
object
 

 127. 

A(n) ____ is a term that describes a group of objects with common properties.
a.
object
c.
class
b.
interface
d.
method
 

 128. 

A class ____ describes what attributes its objects will have and what those objects will be able to do.
a.
profile
c.
interface
b.
definition
d.
signature
 

 129. 

An ____ of a class is an existing object of a class.
a.
example
c.
instance
b.
occurrence
d.
illustration
 

 130. 

When an object is created it is ____.
a.
instantiatied
c.
involved
b.
invoked
d.
instanced
 

 131. 

For a language to be considered object-oriented, it must include ____.
a.
get and set methods
c.
instance variables and methods
b.
classes and objects
d.
variables and methods
 

 132. 

For a language to be considered object-oriented, it must support polymorphism, ____, and encapsulation.
a.
objects
c.
instantiation
b.
class users
d.
inheritance
 

 133. 

____ is the ability to create classes that take on the attributes and methods of existing classes, but with more specific features.
a.
Heritage
c.
Heredity
b.
Instantiation
d.
Inheritance
 

 134. 

When you create a new class using inheritance, you ____ the existing class.
a.
stretch
c.
extend
b.
expand
d.
broaden
 



 
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